15 Apr

Insights: How Internet Works

Internet is the biggest achievement of modern science and its invention has made people closer to each other. Now, a person who lives at one corner of the world can contact with the person who lives at the other corner through various platforms on internet. Another great thing about internet is that it is owned by none rather it happens to be a collection of different big and small networks.

It was 1969 when internet reached to millions of computers from only four host systems.  Though there is no direct owner of internet, it is managed by a group which was made in 1992 with the name “The Internet Society”. This non-profit group designs its protocols and policies which are followed all over the world. Below you are given some content regarding insights of internet.

Networks’ Hierarchy

  • Internet is simply a network of different networks and people are connected via Internet Service Providers (ISP). When you a computer at you home and connect it to an internet connection, you become a part of this hierarchical group.
  • Every internet service providing company has its own Point of Presence (POP) from where it facilitates its users and people to connect with each other via Network Access Points (NAPs)
  • Routers are used to work as bridges between people so that they can send messages to each other while being on two different places but being connected by a bridge called Internet.

IP Addresses:

There is a unique Internet Protocol (IP) address for every machine on internet. It is a communication language used by computers over the internet. It is expressed in decimal format for humans but at the back, for computer language, it is in binary form. Octets are the four numbers in an IP address. Octets are used to assign different IPs to different entities.


The use of internet becomes possible with the help of internet servers. Severs provide internet services to its clients’ machines. There are different servers including web servers, FTP servers, e-mail servers, and different others. They are extensively used all over the world.  When you open a web page of a website, you are sitting at client’s machine. At that moment, you will be using the server of that website.  Every server has its own static IP address.


Servers offer their services by using ports. When a server opens a web page, it would be available on port 80. On the other hand, FTP server will be on port 21. Clients use specific port numbers to connect to a service. After that, it gets access to protocols and then hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is conformed.

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